References for CS448B: Visualization

Papers and articles available on the web will not be handed out in class. Pointers to the online versions of papers are included by the reference. You are expected to download and print these papers yourselves. One reason for doing this is that many visualization papers contain pictures that do not reproduce well when copied. The ACM and IEEE Digital Libraries are now available online for Stanford students. They are a great resource: learn to use them.

Readings not available online will be handed out in class. They will also be available in the CS448 course handout cabinet in Gates Rm 377 (the copy room in the graphics wing 3B).

Hint: Read the material before class!


J. Bertin, Graphics and Graphics Information Processing, Translated by W. Berg and P. Scott, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin-New York, 1981.

J. Bertin, Semiology of Graphics, Translated by W. Berg, University of Wisconsin Press, 1983.

E. Tufte, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, Graphics Press, 1983.

E. Tufte, Envisioning Information, Graphics Press, 1990.

E. Tufte, Visual Explanations, Graphics Press, 1997.

C. Ware, Information Visualization, Academic Press, 2000.

S. Kosslyn, The Elements of Graphics Design, W. H. Freeman, 1994.

W. S. Cleveland, The Elements of Graphing Data, Hobart Press, 1994.

W. S. Cleveland, Visualizing Data, Hobart Press, 1993.

S. Card, J. Mackinlay, B. Schneiderman, Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think Morgan-Kaufman Publishers, 1999.

R. Spence, Information Visualization Pearson, 2001.

L. Wilkinson, The Grammar of Graphics, Springer-Verlag, 1999.

A. MacEachren, Some Truths with Maps: A Primer on Symbolization and Design, Association of American Geographers, 1994.

A. MacEachren, How Maps Work, The Guilford Press, 1995.

E. Imhof, Cartographic Relief Presentation, Walter de Gruyter, 1982.

T. A. Slocum, Thematic Cartography and Visualization, Prentice Hall, 1999.

B. D. Dent, Cartography: Thematic Map Design, 4th Ed. Wm. C. Brown, 1996.



Card, S., Mackinlay, J., and Schneiderman, B., Chapter 1: Information Visualization, In Readings in Information Visualization, Morgan-Kaufman, 1999.

Tversky, B., Spatial schemas in depictions, In Spatial Schemas and Abstract Thought, Ed. M. Garris, MIT Press, 2001.

Data and Image Models

B. Schneiderman, The eyes have it: A task by data type taxonomy for information visualization, (html)

S. Stevens, On the theory of scales of measurement, Science, 103, pp. 677-680. 1946.

J. Bertin, Chapter C. The Graphics Sign System (A Semiological Approach to Graphics), In Graphics and Graphics Information Processing, W. de Gruyter, 1981.

Breve Presentation de la Graphique, a web site in french, spanish, italian, but not english, outlining Bertin's basic theory.

Green, M. Towards a perceptual science of multidimensional data visualization: Bertin and Beyond, (html).

Card, S., Mackinlay,J., The structure of information visualization design space, Proc. IEEE InfoVis 1997, pp. 92-99, (pdf)

Mackinlay, J., Automating the design of graphical presentations of relational information, ACM Trans. on Graphics, 5(2), 111-141, 1986, (pdf)

Roth, S. and Mattis, J., Data Characterization for Intelligent Graphics Presentation, Proceedings of SIGCHI 1990, Seattle, WA, April 1990, pp. 193-200. (pdf).

M. Livny, R. Ramakrishnan, K. Beyer, G. Chen, D. Donjerkovic, S. Lawande, J. Myllymaki, K. Wenger, DEVise: Integrated querying and visual exploration of large datasets, Proceeding of SIGMOD, 1997, (ps.gz).

DEVISE formalizes the specification of visualizations using relational algebra. See the project home page for more details.

C. Stolte, D. Tang, P. Hanrahan, Polaris: A system for query, analysis and visualization of multi-dimensional relational databases, IEEE Trans. on Visualization and Computer Graphics, Vol 8, No. 1, 2002, (pdf).

L. Treinish, A function-based data model for visualization, In Visualization '99 Late Breaking Hot Topics, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1999, (html).

L. Wilkinson, The Grammar of Graphics, Springer-Verlag, 1999.

Wilkinson's book develops a complete grammar for graphs and tables of graphs.

A. MacEachren, How Maps Work, Guilford Press, 1995.

MacEachren's book has an extensive discussion of visual variables from the point of view of cartography. The book extends Bertin's set of visual variables to include others such as blur and transparency.

Cognition and Perception

Larkin, J. and Simon, H.A., Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words", Cognitive Science, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 65-99, 1987.

Cleveland, W. S., McGill, R., Graphical perception: Theory, experimentation and the application to the development of graphical models, J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 79:387, pp. 531-554, 1984, (html).

Nowell, L., Schulman, R., Hix, D., Graphical encodings for information visualization: An empirical study. InfoVis 2002. (pdf).


J. Bertin, Chapter A: Postmortem of an example, Graphics and Graphics Information Processing, Translated by W. Berg and P. Scott, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin-New York, 1981.

R. Becker, W. Cleveland, M. Shyu, A tour of Trellis graphics, (ps)

R. Christ, Review and analysis of color coding research for visual displays, Human Factors, 17, pp. 542-570, 1975.

R. Rao, S. K. Card, The table lens: Merging graphical and symbolic representations in an interactive focus+context visualization for tabular information, Proc. ACM Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1994, (acm).

J. P. Snyder, Flattening the Earth: Two Thousand Years of Map Projections University of Chicago Press, 1977.

Map Projections in PDF


L. Bergman, B. Rogowitz, L. Treinish, A rule-based tool for assisting colormap selection. IEEE Visualization '95, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, pp. 118-125, 1995.

C. Brewer, Color use guidelines for data representation, Proceedings of the Section on Statistical Graphics, American Statistical Association, Alexandria VA. pp. 55-60, 1999.

C. Brewer, Color use guidelines for mapping and visualization, In Visualization in modern cartography, ed. A. M. MacEachren and D. R. F. Taylor, pp. 123-147, Oxford-Pergamon Press, 1994.

C. Brewer, ColorBrewer

M. D. Fairchild, Color Appearance Models, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

E. Imhof, Area colors, Chapter 13 in Cartographic Relief Presentation, Walter de Gruyter, 1982.

J. E. Mersey, Color and thematic map design: The role of colour scheme and map complexity in chloropleth map communication, Carotographica, 27(3), pp. 1-167.

T. Slocum, Color schemes for univariate choropleth and isarithmic maps, Chapter 6, In Thematic cartography and visualization, Prentice Hall, 1999.

M. Stone, A survey of color for computer graphics, SIGGRAPH Course 4, 2001. Course notes.

E. Travis, Effective Color Displays: Theory and Practice, Academic Press, London, 1991.

E. R. Tufte, Color and Information, In Envisioning Information, Graphics Press, Cheshire, CO, 1990.

C. Ware, Color, Chapter 4, In Information Visualization, Morgan-Kaufman, 2000.


Ahlberg, C. and Shneiderman, B., Visual information seeking: Tight coupling of dynamic query filters with starfield displays. In Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI '94 Conference Proceedings, pp. 313-317, 1994 (html).

Ahlberg, C. and Schneiderman, B., The Alphaslider: A compact and rapid selector, Proc. of ACM CHI94 Conference, (April 1994), 365-371, html, 1994.

Becker, R., Cleveland, W. S., Brushing scatterplots, Technometrics, 29, pp. 127-142, 1987.

Chuah, M. C., Roth, S. R., Mattis, J. Kolojejchick, SDM: Selective Dynamic Manipulation of Visualizations, Proceedings of UIST '95, Pittsburgh, PA, pp. 61-70, 1995, (pdf).

W. S. Cleveland and M. E. McGill, Dynamic Graphics for Statistics, Wadsworth and Brooks/Cole, 1988.

Eick, S., Data Visualization Sliders, Proceedings of UIST '94, Marina Del Rey, CA, pp. 119-120, 1994, (acm).

M. A. Fisherkeller, J. H. Friedman, and J. W. Tukey, PRIM-9: An interactive multidimensional data display and analysis system, in Dynamic Graphics for Statistics, W. S. Cleveland and M. E. McGill, eds., Wadsworth, Inc., 1988.

Fishkin, K. and Stone, M., Enhanced dynamic queries via movable filters, In Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI '95 Conference Proceedings, pp. 415-420, 1995, (acm).

Shneiderman, B., Dynamic Queries for Visual Information Seeking, IEEE Software, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 70-77, 1994, html

Shneiderman, B., Dynamic queries, starfield displays, and the path to Spotfire, html, 1999.

Spence, R. and Tweedie, L., The Attribute Explorer: information synthesis via exploration, Interacting with Computers, Vol. 11, pp. 137-146, 1998.

Wattenberg, M., Sketching a Graph to Query a Time-Series Database, CHI 2001 Extended Abstracts, Seattle, WA, pp. 381-382, April 2001, (home).

Conveying Shape: Line Drawings

D. Dooley, M. Cohen, Automatic illustration of 3D geometric models: Lines, In Proceedings of the Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics, pp. 77-82, 1990.

D. Dooley, M. Cohen, Automatic illustration of 3D geometric models: Surfaces, IEEE Visualization '90, pp. 307-315, 1990. (ieee)

A. Hayes, J. Ross, Lines of sight, In The Artful Eye, Ed. R. Gregory, J. Harris, P. Heard, D. Rose, Oxford University Press, 1995.

D. DeCarlo, A. Finkelstein, S. Rusinkiewicz, A. Santella. Suggestive contours for conveying shape, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2003, ACM Transactions on Graphics, 22(3), pp. 848-855, 2003. (html)

Conveying Shape: Lighting, Shading and Texturing

A. Gooch, B. Gooch, Using non-photorealistic rendering to communicate shape.

A. Gooch, B. Gooch, P. Shirley, E. Cohen, A non-photorealistic lighting model for automatic technical illustration, Proceedings of the 25th annual conference on computer graphics and inteactive techniques, pp. 447-452, 1998.

P. Sloan, W. Martin, A. Gooch, B. Gooch, The lit sphere: a model for capturing NPR shading from art, Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2002, pp. 143-150, 2002.

V. S. Ramachandran, 2-D or not 2-D--that is the question, In The Artful Eye, Ed. R. Gregory, J. Harris, P. Heard, D. Rose, Oxford University Press, 1995.

V. Interrante, Investigating the effect of texture orientation on shape perception.

D. Akers, F. Losasso, J. Klingner, M. Agrawala, J. Rick, P. Hanrahan, Conveying shape and features with image-based relighting, Visualization 2004, 2004.

R. Shacked, D. Lischinski, Automatic lighting design using a perceptual quality metric, Computer Graphics Forum, 20(3), pp. 215-226, 2001.

S. Gumhold, Maximum entropy light source placement, Proceedings of Visualization 2002, pp. 275-2002, 2002.


J. Lasseter, Principles of Traditional Animation Applied to Computer Animation, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 87, Computer Graphics, 21(4), pp. 35-44, July 1987. (acm) [Illustrations of 11 Principles]

J. Cutting, Representing motion in a static image: Constraints and parallels in art, science, and popular culture, Perception 31, pp. 1165-1194, 2002, (pdf).

B. Tversky, J. B. Morrison, M. Betrancourt, Animation: Can it facilitate? International Issue of Human-Computer Studies, 57(4), pp. 247-262, 2002.

D. Zongker, D. Salesin, On creating animated presentations, Proceedings of the 2003 ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Symposium on Computer Animation, pp. 298-308, 2003. (html)

S. McCloud, Understanding Comics, Harper, 2003.

F. Thomas, O. Johnson, Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life, Popular Edition, Abeville Press, 1984.

D. Arijon, Grammar of the Film Language, Silman James Press, 1976.

Copyright © 2004 Pat Hanrahan